Introduction to meteorology presents a cogent explanation of the fundamentals of atmospheric dynamics. The course begins with a discussion of the Earth's atmospheric system includingglobal circulation, climate, and the greenhouse effect. The basic conservation laws and the applications of the basic equations of motion are discussed in the context of synoptic scale meteorology.The thermodynamics of the atmosphere are derived based on the equation of state of the atmosphere with specific emphasison adiabatic and pseudo-adiabatic motions. The concept of atmospheric stability is presented in terms of the moist and dry lapse rate. The influence of the planetary boundary layer on atmospheric motions is presented with emphasis on topographic and open ocean frictional effects, temperature discontinuity between land and sea, and the generation of sea breezes. The mesocale dynamics of tornadoes and hurricanes are discussed as well as the cyclogenesis of extratropical coast allows. The course makes use of a multitude of web-based prducts including interactive learning sites, weather forecasts from the National Weather Service (NWS), tropical predictions from the National Hurrican Center and NWS model outputs (AVN, NGM, ETA, and WAM).
Schaefer School of Engineering & Science
Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering
Ocean Engineering / Maritime Systems
Center for Maritime Systems
Research & Education
Nickitas Georgas is a Research Assistant Professor at the School of Civil, Environmental, and Ocean Engineering and The Center for Maritime Systems (CMS) at Stevens. Dr. Georgas’ main research area is estuarine and coastal ocean dynamics. His main focus is the development of numerical models to forecast the hydrodynamics and water quality of inland and coastal waters.
"The development of predictive numerical models in geosciences is the ultimate application of our understanding of the natural world, its processes and interactions with the biosphere. Models can help us realize both what we know (and can confidently forecast and perhaps even steer), and what we still do not comprehend well enough (and need to conduct basic research on)."
Dr. Georgas has participated in a variety of coastal engineering studies around the eastern seaboard of the United States, involving feasibility, impact evaluation, use-attainability, TMDL/WLA/LA, BMP, and dredging assessments, by designing and coupling hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and water quality models. At CMS, he has been responsible for the continuous development and daily forecasts of the New York Harbor Observation and Prediction System (NYHOPS: www.stevens.edu/maritimeforecast) that include the Stevens Storm Surge Warning System forecasts (SSWS: www.stevens.edu/SSWS).
Ph.D. (Ocean Engineering), 2010; Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ
M.S. (Marine Environmental Sciences), 2001; Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY
Before joining Stevens first as a Senior Research Engineer, Dr. Georgas worked for 5 years as a Project Engineer for HydroQual (now HDR|HydroQual), an environmental engineering 200 firm, using modeling scenarios to assess impacts of Water Polution Control Plan retrofitting and Combined Sewer Overflow abatements to water quality around New York City Waters for the Use and Standard Attainability and Long Term Control Plan projects, among several others (e.g. East River tributary modeling, Boston long outfall modeling, etc.).
Achievements & Professional Societies
Honors & Awards
Honors and Appointments:
John P. Breslin Award, Outstanding Graduate Student in Ocean Engineering, 2010
American Shore and Beach Preservation Association educational award, 2006
Honorary mention as outstanding editor for the Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 2004
Sigma-Ξ Outstanding Young Scientist Award, 2000
Third International Poster Prize in Coastal Zone Processes, University of Bologna, ITA, 2000
Recipient of the Akira Okubo Travel Award, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 2000
American Geophysical Union, Member
Water Environment Federation, Member
American Shore and Beach Preservation Association, Member
American Water Resources Association, Member
American Society of Civil Engineers, Associate Member
Kuang, L., Blumberg, A. and N. Georgas. (Oct 19, 2012). "Impact of Assimilating High Frequency Radar Surface Currents on the Fidelity of A Middle Atlantic Bight Circulation Model", Oceans 2012, 14-19 Oct 2012, Hampton Roads, VA. IEEE Xplore. 9. IEEE Link .
Boicourt, W.C., Li, M., Nidzieko, N., Kelly, E.J., Blumberg, A.F., Georgas, N., Updyke, T.G. and W.D. Wilson. (Jan 10, 2013). "Observing the urban estuary: Review and prospect", Oceans 2012, 14-19 Oct 2012, Hampton Roads, VA. IEEE Xplore. 7. IEEE link .
Georgas N., and A. F. Blumberg. (2010). "Establishing Confidence in Marine Forecast Systems: The design and skill assessment of the New York Harbor Observation and Prediction System, version 3 (NYHOPS v3)", Eleventh International Conference in Estuarine and Coastal Modeling (ECM11) November 4-6, 2009 Seattle, Washington. Spalding, M. L., Ph.D., P.E., American Society of Civil Engineers. 660-685.
Bhushan, S., Blumberg, A. F., and N. Georgas. "Comparison of NYHOPS hydrodynamic model SST predictions with satellite observations in the Hudson River tidal, estuarine, and coastal plume region", Eleventh International Conference in Estuarine and Coastal Modeling (ECM11) November 4-6, 2009 Seattle, Washington. Spalding, M. L., Ph.D., P.E., American Society of Civil Engineers. 11-26.
Georgas, N., Blumberg, A. F., Bruno, M. S. and D. S. Runnels. (Jul 11, 2009). "Marine Forecasting for the New York Urban Waters and Harbor Approaches: The design and automation of NYHOPS.", 3rd International Conference on Experiments / Process / System Modelling / Simulation & Optimization. Demos T. Tsahalis, Ph.D., University of Patras, Greece. 1 345-352. Download (629 kb PDF).
A. Talukder, A. Panangadan, A. Blumberg, T. Herrington, and N. Georgas. (Jun 24-26, 2008). "Improving the science return from coastal sensor webs using autonomous predictive control and resource management", Eighth Annual Earth Science Technology Conference, Maryland. University of Maryland. Download (568 kb PDF).
A. Talukder, A. Panangadan, T. Herrington, A. Blumberg, and N. Georgas. (Mar 1-8, 2008). "Autonomous adaptive resource management in sensor network systems for environmental monitoring", IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana. IEEE. Download (626 kb PDF).
Georgas, N. and A. F. Blumberg. (2004). "The Influence of Centrifugal and Coriolis Forces on the Circulation in a Curving Estuary", Eight International Conference in Estuarine and Coastal Modeling (ECM8)
November 3-5, 2003
Monterey, California. Spalding, M. L., Ph.D., P.E., American Society of Civil Engineers. 541-558. Download (1169 kb PDF).
Orton, P., N. Georgas, A.F. Blumberg and J. Pullen. (Sep 26, 2012). "Detailed Modeling of Recent Severe Storm Tides in Estuaries of the New York City Region", Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, American Geophysical Union. 117 (C09030), 17. AGUlink .
Kuang, L., Blumberg, A.F. and N. Georgas. (Jun 26, 2012). "Assessing the fidelity of surface currents from a coastal ocean model and HF radar using drifting buoys in the Middle Atlantic Bight", Ocean Dynamics; Topical Collection on Advances in Search and Rescue at Sea, Springer. 62 (8), 1229-1243. SpringerLink .
Georgas, Nickitas. (Mar 2012). "Large Seasonal Modulation of Tides Due to Ice Cover Friction In a Mid-Latitude Estuary", Journal of Physical Oceanography, American Meteorological Society. 3 (42), 352-369. AMS Journals .
Tom Di Liberto, Brian A. Colle, Nickitas Georgas, Alan F. Blumberg, and Arthur A. Taylor. (Dec 2011). "Verification of a Multi-Model Storm Surge Ensemble Around New York City and Long Island for the Cool Season", Weather and Forecasting, American Meteorological Society. 26 (6), 922-939. AMS Journals .
Edward D. Zaron, Marie-Aude Pradal, Patrick D. Miller, Alan F. Blumberg, Nickitas Georgas, and Wei Li. (Dec 2011). "Bottom Topography Mapping via Nonlinear Data Assimilation", Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, American Meteorological Society. 12 (28), 1606-1623. AMS Journals .
Talukder, A., Panangadan, A.V., Georgas, N., Herrington, T., and A.F. Blumberg. (Dec 2010). "Integrated Operational Control of Unattended Distributed Coastal Sensor Web Systems with Mobile Autonomous Robots", Ellsworth LeDrew, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society / IEEE Committee on Earth Observations. 3 (4), 442-450. IEEE JSTARS 2010, Talukder et al. .
Georgas, N., Rangarajan, S., Farley, K. J., and S-C. K. Jagupilla. (Jun 2009). "AVGWLF-Based Estimation of Nonpoint Source Nitrogen Loads Generated Within Long Island Sound Subwatersheds", Kenneth J. Lanfear, P.E., Journal of the American Water Resources Association, American Water Resources Association. 45 (3), 715-733. JAWRA June 2009, Georgas et al. .
Blumberg A. F. and N. Georgas. (Apr 2008). "Quantifying Uncertainty in Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Circulation Modeling", Dennis A. Lyn, Ph.D., Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers. 134 (4), 403-415. Download (918 kb PDF).
Georgas, N., A. F. Blumberg, T. O. Herrington. (Apr 2007). "An Operational Coastal Wave Forecasting Model for New Jersey and Long Island Waters", Reinhard E. Flick, Ph.D., Shore & Beach, American Shore and Beach Preservation Association. 75 (2), 30-35. Download (619 kb PDF).
Georgas, N., Runnels, D., Herrington, T., and A. Blumberg. (Dec 16, 2009). "Improvements to the Stevens Storm Surge Warning System (SSWS)", National Weather Service, Winter Weather Professional Development Day, Upton, NY. Download (5396 kb PDF).
Georgas, N. (Aug 17, 2009). "Seasonal Changes in Forecasting Skill (and Ways to Deal With Them) in Limited Area Hydrodynamic Models.", MABPOM-SECOM 2009, Rayleigh, NC.. Download (2816 kb PDF).
A. Talukder, A. Panangadan, A.F. Blumberg, T. Herrington, and N. Georgas. (Dec 15-19, 2008). "Improving the Forecast Accuracy of an Ocean Observation and Prediction System by Adaptive Control of the Sensor Network", Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract IN31A-1120. San Francisco, CA.
Georgas, N., Blumberg, A., Li, W., Ko, J. and S. Bhushan. (Sep 22-23, 2008). "Including 2D atmospheric forcing in NYHOPS OFS. Lessons Learned.", MABPOM 2008, Woods Hole, MA. Download (2235 kb PDF).
Georgas, N., M. Tedesco, K. Farley, S. Rangarajan. (Feb 4-6, 2008). "Estimation of Non-Point Source Nitrogen Loads to Long Island Sound Using a Simple Model for BMP Screening", New York Water Environment Association 80th Annual Meeting and Exhibition February 4-6, 2008 New York, New York.. Download (854 kb PDF).
Georgas, N. (Oct 30, 2007). "The new High-Resolution NYHOPS OFS. Validation results and findings", MABPOM 2007, Rutgers Universtity, New Brunswick, NJ.. Download (2331 kb PDF).
Gardner, G. B., R. F. Chen, A. F. Blumberg, N. Georgas, W. Huang, F. Peri. "Measurement and Modeling of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in an Urban Estuary", ASLO 2007 Aquatic Sciences Meeting
February 4-9, 2007
Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Georgas, N., Li, W. and A. Blumberg. (2009). "Investigation of Coastal CDOM Distributions Using In-Situ and Remote Sensing Observations and a Predictive CDOM Fate and Transport Model.", Office of Naval Research Ocean Battleship Sensing Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Reports CD, Office of Naval Research; Ocean Battleship Sensing S&T Department. 23. Download (1317 kb PDF) Office of Naval Research report .
Georgas, N. and A. Blumberg. (2008). "The New York Bight Shelf - Harbor Dynamic Study: Ocean Forecast Sensitivity to Forecasts of Atmospheric Forcing", Office of Naval Research. 50. Download (3870 kb PDF).
Swanson, R. L., D. J. Tonjes, N. Georgas, and B. W. Stephens. (2000). "New York City 1999 Regional Harbor Survey", Joel A. Miele Sr., P.E., New York City Harbor Survey Program, New York City Department of Environmental Protection. 107.
Nickitas Georgas. (Mar 5, 2010). "Establishing Confidence in Marine Forecast Systems", The design of a high fidelity marine forecast model for the NY NJ Harbor Estuary and its adjoining waters, Blumberg A.F., Aikman, F. III, Herrington T.O., Hires, R.I., and P.D. Miller, PhD Dissertation, Stevens Institute of Technology. 295. Download (97 kb PDF).
Georgas, Nickitas. (Aug 2001). "Tidal Hydrodynamics and Bedload Transport in a Shallow, Vegetated Harbor (Stony Brook Harbor, Long Island, New York).", A modeling approach with management implications., Wilson, R.E., Swanson, R.L., Bokuniewicz, H., and D.-P. Wang, M.S. Thesis, Stony Brook University. 184. Download (7567 kb PDF).