PEP 575:Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation and Climate
This course treats scattering, absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiation in planetary media. The radiative transfer equation is derived, approximate solutions are found. Important heuristic models (Lorentz atom, two-level atom, vibrating rotator) as well as fundamental concepts are discussed including reflectance, absorptance, emittance, radiative warming/cooling rates, actinic radiation, photolysis and biological dose rates. A unified treatment of radiative transfer within the atmosphere and ocean is provided, and extensive use of two-stream and approximate methods is emphasized. Applications to the climate problem focus on the role of greenhouse gases, aerosols and clouds in explaining the temperature structure of the atmosphere and the equilibrium temperature of the earth. The course is suitable for beginning graduate and upper-level undergraduate students.
Description of simple physical models which account for electrical conductivity and thermal properties of solids. Basic crystal lattice structures, X-ray diffraction and dispersion curves for phonons and electrons in reciprocal space. Energy bands, Fermi surfaces, metals, insulators, semiconductors, superconductivity and ferromagnetism. Fall semester.
Typical text: Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics.
Kinetic theory: ideal gases, distribution functions, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, Boltzmann equation, H-theorem and entropy, and simple transport theory. Thermodynamics: review of first and second laws, thermodynamic potentials, Legendre transformation, and phase transitions. Elementary statistical mechanics: introduction to microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical distributions, partition functions, simple applications, including ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann, Einstein-Bose, and Fermi-Dirac gases, paramagnetic systems, and blackbody radiation.
Typical text: Reif, Statistical and Thermal Physics.
Advanced transport theory, classical statistical mechanics, fluctuation theory, quantum statistical mechanics, ideal Bose and Fermi gases, imperfect gases, phase transitions, superfluids, Ising model critical phenomena, and renormalization group. Typical text: Huang, Statistical Mechanics.
Research & Education
Ionospheric resonse to aurol particle precipitation and solar EUV radiation
Ionospheric thermal structure and composition
Electron transport and thermalization
Neutral atmospheric heating
Kinetic theory of planetary atmospheres
Radiation transport in planetary media including the coupled atmosphere-snow/ice-ocean system
Atmospheric radiative energy balance and climate
Tropospheric, stratospheric heating and cooling by solar and terrestrial radiation,
Atmospheric photodissociation rates and their impact on composition
Satellite remote sensing of the environment
Numerical modeling of geophysical phenomena and comparison with measurements
Radiation transport in turbid such as biological tissue
Aerosol-cloud-radiation-climate interactions and feedbacks.
1978 Ph.D., Astro-Geophysics, University of Colorado, USA
1972 M.Sc., Ionospheric Physics, University of Oslo, Norway
Experience & Service
Post-Doctoral Fellow, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), 1978-1980.
Research Associate, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), 1980-1983.
Associate Professor, University of Tromsø, 1983-1988.
Chairman, Dept. of Physics, University of Tromsø, 1984-1986.
Sabbatical: University of Alaska and University of Colorado, June 1987-June 1988.
Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), 1983-1988.
Professor of Physics, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), 1988-1999.
Head of Atmospheric Science Group at Geophysical Institute/UAF, 1993-1995.
Sabbatical: University of Bergen, Norway, September 1995-June 1996.
Head of Atmospheric Science Group at Geophysical Institute/UAF, 1996-98.
Head of Environmental Optics Group at Geophysical Institute/UAF, 1998-1999.
Professor Emeritus, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2000-.
Professor, Stevens Institute of Technology, 1999-present.
Director, Light and Life Laboratory, Stevens Institute of Technology, 2000-present.
Director, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, 2007-present.
Achievements & Professional Societies
Honors & Awards
Recipient of the 1991 Terris and Katarina Moore Prize at the University of Alaska
Member of Science Working Group for Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Program, 1992-96
Site Scientist of DOE's Arctic ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) Research Site, 1992-2002
Science Team Member of the Japanese ADEOS Program, 1995-present
Who's Who in the World and Who's Who in the West
Awarded Professor Emeritus status at the University of Alaska in 2000
Recipient of an SPIE Excellence Award in 2001
Elected Fellow of the Optical Society of America, 2002
American Geophysical Union
American Meteorological Society
European Geophysical Society
European Optical Society
Norwegian Physical Society
K. Stamnes, B. Hamre, J. J. Stamnes, G. Ryzhikov, M. Biryulina. (2009). "Modeling of radiation transport in coupled atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean systems", Proc. Int. Conference Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009), Saratoga Springs, New York, May 3-7. Proc. Int. Conference Methods & Reactor Physics (M&C 2009).
Swanson, D. L., S. D. Laman, M. Biryulina, K. P. Nielsen, G. Ryzhikov, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, L. Zhao, F. S. Castellana, and K. Stamnes. (2009). "Optical transfer diagnosis of pigmented lesions: a pilot study", Skin Research and Technology. (15), 330-337.
Aoki, T., M. Hori, and K. Stamnes. (2009). "ADEOS-II/GLI Snow/Ice Products and the scientific implications", J. Remote Sens. Soc. Japan (JRSSJ). (77), 595-614.
Zhang, K., W. Li, H. Eide, and K. Stamnes. (2007). "A Bio-optical model suitable for use in forward and inverse coupled atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer models", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 103, 411-423.
Spurr, R., K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. Zhang, and J. Stamnes. (2007). "Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and ocean color: A classic inverse modeling approach: I. Analytic Jacobians from the linearized CAO-DISORT model", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer. 104, 428-449.
Nielsen, K. P, L. Zhao, J. J. Stamnes, K. Stamnes, and J. Moan. (2006). "The importance of the depth distribution of melanin in skin for DNA protection and photobiological processes", J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology. 82, 194-198.
Zhao, L., K.P. Nielsen, A. Juzeniene, P. Juzenas, V. Iani, L.W. Ma, K. Stamnes, J.J. Stamnes, and J. Moan. (2006). "Spectroscopic measurements of photoinduced processes in human skin after topical application of the hexylester of 5-aminolevulinic acid", J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol.. 25, 307-320.
Jin, Z., T. P. Charlock, K. Rutledge, K. Stamnes, and Y. Wang. (2006). "An analytical solution of Radiative Transfer in the Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean System with Rough Surface", Applied Optics. 45, 7443-7455.
Jiang, S., K. Stamnes, W. Li and B. Hamre. (2005). "Enhanced Solar Irradiance Across the Atmosphere-Sea Ice Interface: A Quantitative Numerical Study", Applied Optics. 44, 2613-2625.
Stamnes, K., W. Li, H. Eide and J. J. Stamnes. (2005). "Challenges in atmospheric correction of satellite imagery", Opt. Eng.. 44, 041003-1-041003-9.
Erga, S. R., K. Aursland, O. Frette, B. Hamre, J. K. Lotsberg, J. J. Stamnes, J. Aure, F. Rey, and K. Stamnes. (2005). "UV transmission in Norwegian marine waters: controlling factors and possible effects on primary production and vertical distribution of phytoplankton", Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser.. 305 79-100.
Hamre, B., J.-G. Winther, S. Gerland, J. J. Stamnes, and K. Stamnes. (2004). "Modeled and measured optical transmittance of snow covered first-year sea ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard", J. Geophys. Res.. 109, d0i:10.1029/2003JC001926.
Stamnes, K., W. Li, B. Yan, H. Eide, A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau and J. J. Stamnes. (2003). "Accurate and self-consistent ocean color algorithm: simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations", Applied Optics. 42, 939-951.
Stamnes, K. (2002). "Ultraviolet and Visible Radiation in the Atmosphere-Ocean System: A Tutorial Review of Modeling Capabilities", Opt. Eng.. 41, 3008-3018.
Lubin, D., W. Li, P. Dustan, C. H. Mazel, and K. Stamnes. (2001). "Remote sensing of coral reefs from space: Spectral signatures and band optimization", Remote Sensing of the Environment. 75, 127-137.
Hu, Y.-X., and K. Stamnes. (2000). "Climate sensitivity to cloud optical properties", Tellus. 52B, 81-93.
Stamnes, K., R. G. Ellingson, J. A. Curry, J. E. Walsh, and B. D. Zak. (1999). "Review of science issues and deployment strategies for the North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) ARM site", J. Climate. 12, 46-63.
Schulz, F. M., K. Stamnes, and J. J. Stamnes. (1998). "Scattering of electromagnetic waves by spheroidal particles: A novel approach exploiting the T-matrix computed in spheroidal coordinates", Applied Optics. 37, 7875-7896.
Meier, R. R., G. P. Anderson, C. A. Cantrell, L. A. Hall, J. Lean, K. Minschwaner, R. E. Shetter, E. P. Shettle, and K. Stamnes. (1997). "Actinic radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere", J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Physics. 59, 2111-2157.
Zhang, T., K. Stamnes, and S. A. Bowling. (1996). "Impact of clouds on surface radiative fluxes and snowmelt in the Arctic and Subarctic", J. Climate. 9, 2110-2123.
Kylling, A., K. Stamnes, and S. C. Tsay. (1995). "A reliable and efficient two-stream algorithm for spherical radiative transfer: Documentation of accuracy in realistic layered media", J. Atmos. Chem.. 21, 115-150.
Jin, Z., and K. Stamnes. (1994). "Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting media such as the atmosphere/ocean system", Applied Optics. 33, 431-442.
Stamnes, K. (1993). "The stratosphere as a modulator of ultraviolet radiation into the biosphere", Surveys in Geophys. 14, 167-186.
Hu, Y.-X., and K. Stamnes. (1993). "An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models", J. Climate. 6, 728-742.
Kylling, A., and K. Stamnes. (1992). "Efficient yet accurate solution of the linear transport equation in the presence of internal sources: The exponential-linear-in-depth approximation", J. Comp. Phys.. 102, 265-276.
Stamnes, K., Ø. Lie-Svendsen and M.H. Rees. (1991). "The linear Boltzmann equation in slab geometry: Development and verification of a reliable and efficient solution", Planet. Space Sci.. 39, 1453-1463.
Stamnes, K., J. Slusser, M. Bowen, C. Booth, and T. Lucas. (1990). "Biologically effective ultraviolet radiation, total ozone abundance and cloud optical depth at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, September 15, 1988 through April 15, 1989", Geophys. Res. Lett.. 17, 2181-2184.
Tsay, S.-C., K. Stamnes and K. Jayaweera. (1989). "Radiative energy budget in the cloudy and hazy Arctic", J. Atmos. Sci.. 46, 1002-1018.
Stamnes, K., S. C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, and K. Jayaweera. (1988). "Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting media", Applied Optics. 27, 2502-2509.
Stamnes, K. (1986). "The theory of multiple scattering of radiation in plane parallel atmospheres", Rev. Geophys.. 24, 299-310.
Stamnes, K. and R. A. Swanson. (1981). "A new look at the discrete ordinate method for radiative transfer calculations in anisotropically scattering atmospheres", J. Atmos. Sci.. 38, 387-389.
Stamnes, K. (1980). "Analytic approach to auroral electron transport and energy degradation", Planet. Space Sci.. 28, 427-441.