Particle kinematics and kinetics, systems of particles, work-energy, impulse and momentum, rigid-body kinematics, relative motion, Coriolis acceleration, rigid-body kinetics, direct and oblique impact, eccentric impact.
The principles of dynamics as applied to the analysis of the accelerations and dynamic forces in machines such as linkages, cam systems, gears trains, belts, chains and couplings. The effect these dynamic forces have on the dynamic balance and operation of the machines and the attending stresses in the individual components of the machines. Some synthesis techniques. Students also work in teams on a semester long project associated with the design of a mechanical system from recognizing the need through a detailed conceptual design.
PME 530:Introduction to Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
Pharmaceutical manufacturing is vital to the success of the technical operations of a pharmaceutical company. This course is approached from the need to balance company economic considerations with the regulatory compliance requirements of safety, effectiveness, identity, strength, quality, and purity of the products manufactured for distribution and sale by the company. Overview of chemical and biotech process technology and equipment; dosage forms and finishing systems; facility engineering; health, safety, and environment concepts; and regulatory issues.
PME 540:Validation and Regulatory Affairs in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
An introduction to validation concepts in plant, process, clean-up, sterilization, filtration, analytical methods, and computer systems. Learn about Good Automated Manufacturing Practice (GAMP), IEEESQAP, and new electronic requirements, such as 21 CFR Part 11. Explore master validation plans, IQ, OQ, and PQ protocols, and their relationships to GMP. Become familiar with FDA and international (EU) regulations governing current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and current Good Laboratory Practices (cGLP).
Engineering graphics: principles of orthographic and auxiliary projections, pictorial presentation of engineering designs, dimensioning and tolerance, sectional and detail views, assembly drawings. Descriptive geometry. Engineering figures and graphs. Solid modeling introduction to computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) using numerically-controlled (NC) machines.
ME 540:Validation and Regulatory Affairs in Pharmeceutical Manufacturing
Validation of a pharmaceutical manufacturing process is an essential requirement with respect to compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) contained within the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR). Course covers validation concepts for plant, process, cleaning, sterilization, filtration, analytical methods, and computer systems; GAMP (Good Automated Manufacturing Practice), IEEE SQAP, and new electronic requirements - 21 CFR Part 11. Master validation plan, IQ, OQ, and PQ protocols, and relationships to GMP. National (FDA) and international (EU) regulatory affairs for cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practice) and cGLP (current Good Laboratory Practice) requirements in development, manufacturing, and marketing. Handling the FDA inspection.
ME 530:Introduction to Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
Pharmaceutical manufacturing is vital to the success of the technical operations of a pharmaceutical company. This course is approached from the need to balance company economic considerations with the regulatory compliance requirements of safety, effectiveness, identity, strength, quality, and purity of the products manufactured for distribution and sale by the company. Overview of chemical and biotech process technology and equipment, dosage forms and finishing systems, facility engineering, health, safety and environment concepts, and regulatory issues.
Schaefer School of Engineering & Science
Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Engineering
Research & Education
Ph.D., Engineering Mechanics, City University of New York, 1969
Master of Science, Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, 1963
Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, City College of New York, 1962
Dynamics of Machines and Mechanisms, Balancing of Linkages
Experience & Service
Erie Plastics, Sr. Corporate Automation Manager
Weiler Corporation, Manager, Engineering & Manufacturing Support Services
Raytheon Engineers & Constructors, Manager, Advanced Manufacturing & Systems Integration
Gulf+Western, Advanced Development & Engng. Center, Group Mgr., Planning/ Tech. Services
American Can Company, Corporate R&D Laboratory, Research Associate
Stevens Mechanical Engineering Dept. responsibilities include: teaching engineering classes, coordinating Engineering Graphics program, supervising Senior Design Projects, starting up and coordinating (as Director) the graduate program in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Engineering, and other academic functions.
Engineering Design Consulting: Bustin Industrial Products, Inc. & Bright Lithographing Corp. Various legal consulting.
Papers Reviewer: ASME, CSME (Canada), Applied Mechanics Reviews, Shock and Vibration Digest, Mechanism and Machine Theory, National Science Foundation [proposals].
Achievements & Professional Societies
Honors & Awards
ASME Life Fellow
In 1995, ASME honored fundamental paper (1969) on the balancing of linkages by being named one of the five greatest contributions in the mechanisms field since 1945. Now in university textbooks
Machine Design Award, CCNY and Machinery Magazine
Grants, Contracts & Funds
Multiple contracts awarded by New Jersey Department of Transportation for research on new truck energy absorption system for highway safety.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Life Fellow
International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE), Member
American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), Member
Society of Manufacturing Engineers/Robotics International (SME/RI), Sr. Member
R. Laub, V. Tollerton, & R. Berkof. (2010). "The Cheliceral Claw of Acutiramus (Arthopoda: Eurypterida): Functional Analysis Based on Morphology and Engineering Principles", Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 39 29-42. Short Story .
B. Demeulenaere & R. S. Berkof. (2008). "Improving Machine Drive Dynamics: A Structured Design Approach Towards Balancing", Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Mechanical Design.
J. DaSilva, J. Peterson, M. Kocak, W. Indoe, & R. Berkof. (Jan 2008). "Automatic Pill Bottle Opener", Pharmaceutical Engineering. Vol. 26, No. 1 pp. 62-70.
R. S. Berkof. (2004). "History of Machines and Mechanisms by the Stevens Family and at Stevens Institute of Technology", International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms, Proceedings HMM2004, Marco Ceccarelli, Ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, ISBN 1-4020-2203-4 (HB), pp.149-162.
Richard S. Berkof. (1988). "The Second Ten Years: A Bibliography", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp.81-120,.
G. G. Lowen, F. R. Tepper, and R. S. Berkof. (1983). "Balancing of Linkages -- An Update", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 213-220.
Richard S. Berkof. (1979). "The Input Torque in Linkages", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol 14, No. 1 pp. 61-73.
R. S. Berkof, G. G. Lowen, and F. R. Tepper. (Jun 1977). "Balancing of Linkages", Shock and Vibration Digest, Vol. 9, No. 6 pp. 3-10.
R. S. Berkof, G. G. Lowen, and F. R. Tepper. (1976). "Complete Force Balancing of Four-Bar Linkages", Linkage Design Monograph, A. H. Soni, Ed.
Richard S. Berkof. (1976). "The First Ten Years: A Bibliography", Mechanism and Mach. Theory,, Vol. 11, No. 3 pp. 157-179.
G. G. Lowen, F. R. Tepper, & R. S. Berkof. (1974). "The Quantitative Influence of Complete Force Balancing on the Forces and Moments of Certain Families of Four-Bar Linkages", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 9, No. 3/4 pp. 299-323.
Richard S. Berkof. (1973). "Complete Force and Moment Balancing of Inline Four-Bar Linkages", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 8, No. 3 pp. 397-410.
Richard S. Berkof with G. G. Lowen. (Feb 1971). "Determination of Force-Balanced Four-Bar Linkages with Optimum Shaking Moment Characteristics", Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry
, Vol. 93B, No. 1 pp. 39-46.
R. S. Berkof and G. G Lowen. (Feb 1971). "heory of Shaking Moment Optimization of Force Balanced Four-Bar Linkages", Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 93B, No. 1 pp. 53-60.
R. S. Berkof & G. G. Lowen (1969). "A New Method for Completely Force Balancing Simple Linkages", Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 91B, No. 1 pp. 21-26.
G. G. Lowen & R. S. Berkof (1968). "Survey of Investigations into the Balancing of Linkages", Journal of Mechanisms, plus 11 translated articles from the Russian and German literature, Vol. 3, No. 4 pp. 221-231.
J. Chung & R. S. Berkof. (Oct 2004). "Development of Advanced TMA Designs", 6th Annual NJDOT Research Showcase.
J. Chung & R. S. Berkof. (Oct 2003). "Alternate Designs of Truck Mounted Attenuators", 5th Annual NJDOT Research Showcase.
T. Milici & R. S. Berkof. (May 1990). "Steel Mill Material Handling Simulation Study", Presented at 6th Annual Scientific Computing and Automation Conference, Philadelphia, PA.
Chien-Ih Pai, James J. Rowley, and Richard S. Berkof.. (May 1988). "Simulation of an Integrated Mail Handling System in an Automated Bulk Mail Center", Proceedings, USPS Advanced Technology Conference,United States Postal Service. Vol. 1 pp. 167-178.
R. S. Berkof. (1979). "Force Balancing of a Six Bar Linkage", Proceedings, Fifth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Vol. 2 pp. 1082-1085.
R. S. Berkof. (1975). "On the Input Torque in Mechanisms", Proceedings, Fourth World Congress on the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. pp. 151-156.