Bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturing and unit operations. Process scale-up. Transport processes, including mass, heat, and momentum transfer. Process synthesis, analysis, and design. Traditional separation processes, including distillation, evaporation, extraction, crystallization, and absorption. New separation processes, including pressure swing adsorption, molecular sieves, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, microfiltration, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, diafiltration, gas permeation, pervaporation, supercritical fluid extraction, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Batch and continuous reactors for homogeneous, heterogeneous, catalytic, and non-catalytic reactions.